Tattoos are an ancient body decoration, still attractive in modern times. It is a pattern and symbol formed by using a tool to pierce insoluble paint under the skin. In addition to traditional decorative tattoos in modern times, there are also aesthetic tattoos, such as eyebrow tattoos, lip liner, and eyeliner. However, with the changes in aesthetic perception, psychological changes, and changes in the emotional state of life, tattoos have lost their aesthetic impression of the original tattoo, so removing the tattoo has become an emotional need that cannot be avoided. Another part is due to job hunting. Tattoo needle sticks cause local scars, and pigments cause local inflammation and allergic reactions. Tattoo removal has become a hard demand.
How can we remove this multi-color pigment that colonizes under the skin?
First of all, only by knowing yourself and the enemy can you win every battle.
One. Classification of tattoos
1) Professional tattoos: The tattoo artist holds a tattoo gun and injects ink into the dermis of the skin evenly and at a high density. As time goes by, the pigment migrates through the lymphatic vessels to the regional lymph nodes. Therefore, the older the tattoo, the more likely it is to have blurred pigmentation. boundary.
2) Amateur tattoos: hold a needle to inject ink into the skin of different depths, the layer is relatively shallow, generally reaching the dermal papilla layer, and the color is relatively small.
3) Cosmetic tattoos: usually drawn by a makeup artist freehand, such as eyeliner, lip liner and eyebrow tattoos, etc. These are generally brown, black, flesh-colored and red pigments containing titanium dioxide and iron oxide.
4) Medical tattoos: small gray or blue-black tattoos. The location of the radiotherapy area or specific surgical area is designated by the medical staff. Similar to amateur tattoos, they usually consist of a small amount of ink or carbon paint.
5) Traumatic tattoo: It is caused by foreign body deposition. For example, metal, glass, dust and carbon-containing particles enter the skin after mechanical penetration.
Two, tattoo removal methods
The earliest report of tattoo removal was that in 543 AD, Greek doctor Aetius used salt rubbing to remove tattoos. This physical rubbing method often had a bad scar ending. The traditional method involves corroding tattoos with strong acids and alkalis. This treatment has caused deep damage to many tattooers, and the scars produced by it are really hard to love. This treatment has been thrown into “irregular treatment”. Faced with one-click deletion in the recycle bin.
(1) Surgical resection
Direct suture or skin flap suture after direct resection, the disadvantage is that obvious scars are formed, and it is not suitable for the resection of large areas of tattoos. It is rarely cited at present, or applied to those with obvious scar hyperplasia after tattooing, local ulcer formation and other surgical indications. Tattooed person.
(2) Laser treatment
1. The principle of laser treatment
Laser was first applied to tattoo treatment in the 1960s, but the damage to surrounding tissues and scars after treatment made the treatment results unsatisfactory. Until the introduction of the selective photothermal theory in the 1980s, specific wavelengths were preferentially absorbed by the preset exogenous target pigments, which enabled lasers to make great progress in tattoo treatment. Based on this theory, the target pigment should be heated quickly before cooling. In order to achieve the best damage effect, the duration of the pulse must be shorter than the thermal relaxation time, or the time required for the target to lose 50% of its energy. Because the diameter of the tattoo pigment particles is small, its thermal relaxation time is about 0.1ns. This kind of pulse heat requires a very short pulse duration (nanosecond to picosecond level) to prevent the pigment particles from cooling. Q-switched lasers can produce very short pulse duration and have a peak energy higher than the continuous energy output. At present, more lasers with shorter pulse times are constantly being developed, with more precise target pigment destruction.
2. Commonly used tattoo treatment laser equipment
The choice of laser is mainly based on the tattoo color and skin type of the tattooer (see Table 1). Commonly used laser instruments include Q-switched ruby laser (wavelength 694nm), Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (wavelength 1064nm), Q-switched Alexandrite laser (wavelength 755nm) and frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (wavelength 532nm), etc. In addition, picosecond laser has quickly become the main method of tattoo treatment. There is better curative effect and shorter treatment interval. The current picosecond laser equipment has 532nm, 694nm, 755nm and 1064nm. In addition, pay attention to the occurrence of pigmentation in the treatment of type IV-VI tattoos.
3. Laser treatment effect
The efficacy of tattoos of different colors is quite different. The tattoo removal effect is better for black, brown, dark blue and green, while red, orange, yellow and light blue are less effective.
The pigment of a tattoo is difficult to be completely clear. Even the best black and dark blue tattoos may have local pigmentation, depigmentation, or local scarring to varying degrees after treatment.
Laser is the best choice for safe and effective tattoo treatment. It has not yet achieved satisfactory results in the treatment of multi-color tattoos. Therefore, readers are suggested to have forward thinking before attempting to implement tattoos.
Finally, if you are attracted by some fresh and beautiful patterns and want to get a tattoo on a whim, it is recommended to use stickers. The duration is about one week. It is fresh and non-boring. It happens to be a sweet spot and worth having.